Characterization of the clinical and laboratory features of primary and secondary antiphospholipid syndrome in a cohort of Egyptian patients
OBJECTIVE To study the clinical and laboratory features of APS in a cohort of Egyptian patients and compare between primary and secondary type regarding clinical and immunological pattern.
PATIENTS AND METHODS We reviewed the medical records of 148 antiphospholipid syndrome patients following in Rheumatology and Rehabilitation department, Cairo University. Clinical and immunological data were recorded; subsequently our patients were compared based on type of APS, patient's age and sex.
RESULTS The cohort consisted of 148 patients, 135 females (91.2%) and 13 males (8.8%). The mean age at onset was 23.6 ±7.66 years. 28.4% of patients had primary and 71.6% of patients had secondary APS. Patients with secondary APS presented more frequently with the following manifestations compared to patients with primary APS: systemic manifestations (56.6% versus 4.8%, P-value: 0.00), venous thrombosis (41.5% versus 19%, P-value: 0.009), cutaneous vasculitis (19.8% versus 4.8%, P-value: 0.023), thrombocytopenia (37.7% versus 11.9%, P-value: 0.002) and hemolytic anemia (28.3% versus 4.8%, P-value: 0.002). On the other hand, the total obstetric manifestations were more common in primary APS (92.5% versus 75%, P-value: 0.007). Juvenile onset APS presented more frequently with systemic manifestations (68.8%, p-value: 0.02) neurological (62.5%, p-value: 0.01) and renal manifestations (31.3%, p-value: 0.005). No statistically significant difference was found between males and females in our cohort.
CONCLUSION APS has broad spectrum manifestations, which may vary according to patient's age at disease onset and association with other diseases. Further more, different ethnicities may show different presentations.